Introduction to the topic
Victims who are exposed to domestic violence often seek medical attention at first, because of the psychological or physical injuries they suffer. Often, however, they do not talk about the violence out of shame, fear of being judged or fear of their partner. In order to support the patient, it is important that victims are identified at an early stage and that the violence is disclosed as early as possible.
The learning objectives of this module are to get familiar with the various indicators of domestic violence, their associated risks and to be sensitised to them.
Case Study: Disclosure of domestic violence in medical practice
We are in a family practice and a 25-year-old patient comes to the consultation.
Physician: “Good morning Mrs Schmidt, what can I do for you today?”
Patient: “I feel totally overworked at the moment and wanted to ask if you could put me on sick leave for two weeks?”
Physician: “Is there any particular reason why you feel that way and has this happened before?”
Patient: “I have never been on sick leave because of overload before. I have just recently separated and everything just gets too much for me at the moment.”
Physician: “Of course I can put you on sick leave, but if you feel so overwhelmed by your situation, I would be happy to offer you further support. Perhaps you would like to talk to me about it?”
Patient: “Mmm, I actually feel very uncomfortable to talk about it. There were some problems in my previous relationship. My boyfriend was a control freak and constantly checked my cell phone. We were always fighting whenever I wanted to meet with my friends or family. As a result, I became more and more isolated and the only company when leaving the house was my boyfriend. Messages from my friends were read by him before I had a chance to read them. I finally broke up, but I don’t know if that was the right decision.”
Physician: “If your boyfriend controlled and bullied you so much, why do you think the breakup was a mistake?”
Patient: “He keeps calling me and sending me messages. He puts me under pressure by saying that he cannot live without me and will hurt himself if I don’t come back. All the time I see his car in the parking lot: while shopping, being at work or meeting with friends. I always have the feeling that he is around. Can that still be a coincidence? I have already met him twice because I felt so sorry for him and I was afraid that he would really hurt himself.”
Identification of violence
It is important for health service providers to be aware that a victim’s health problems may be caused or made worse by violence. Victims subjected to domestic violence in relationships seek health services for related emotional or physical conditions, including injuries. However, often they do not tell the provider about the violence due to shame or fear of being judged or fear of their partner. To tackle domestic abuse, it is essential that victims are identified and disclose their abuse as early as possible. People experiencing domestic abuse are more likely to come into contact with health services than other public services. As a health professional you will be a first point of contact for many.
There are a whole range of indicators to warn health professionals that a patient may be experiencing domestic abuse. Some of these are quite subtle and it is important that professionals remain alert to the potential signs and respond appropriately. Some victims also drop hints in their interactions with health and care staff and their behaviours may also be telling. They rely on staff to listen, persist and enquire about signs and cues. They need staff to follow up conversations in private, record details of behaviours, feelings and injuries seen and reported, and support them to take action suitable for their organisation’s systems and local pathways.
To improve diagnosis and the subsequent care of patients, health care professionals should always ask about domestic violence when taken the medical history.
Many health settings are busy places, with people passing in and out of cubicles and offices, and this will not be the appropriate environment asking about domestic violence or talking about feelings.
Indicators for domestic violence in adults
The following are indicators associated with victims of domestic violence. Please note that none or all of these might be present and be indicators of other issues. Some victims also give hints in conversation and their behaviour can also be revealing. Victims are therefore dependent on being listened to, one being persistent and asking for signs and clues. This is where using these indicators as a guide can complement the practice of asking directly.
- Unexplained bruising and other injuries
- Especially head, neck and facial injuries
- Bruises of various ages
- Injuries sustained do not fit the history given
- Bite marks, unusual burns
- Injuries on parts of the body hidden from view (including breasts, abdomen and/or genitals), especially if pregnant
- Chapped lips
- Teeth knocked out
- Miscarriages and other pregnancy complications
- Chronic conditions including headaches, pain and aches in muscles, joints and back
- Sexually transmitted infection and other gynaecological problems
- Emotional distress, e.g. anxiety, indecisiveness, confusion and hostility
- Sleeping and eating disorders
- Anxiety / depression / pre-natal depression
- Psychosomatic complaints
- Self-harm or suicide attempts
- Evasive or ashamed about injuries
- Seeming anxious in the presence of their partner
- Social isolation / no access to transport
- Frequent absences from work or studies
- Submissive behaviour / low self-esteem
- Alcohol or drug abuse
- Fear of physical contact
- Nervous reactions to physical contact/ quick and unexpected movements
Possible Indicators for sexual violence
- Injuries to the genitals, the inside of the thighs, the breasts, the anus
- Irritations and redness in the genital area
- Common infections in the genital area
- Pain in the lower abdomen and/or pelvic area
- Sexually transmitted diseases
- Bleeding in the vaginal or rectal area
- Pain when urinating or defecating
- Pain when sitting or walking
- Strong fears of examinations in the genital area; avoidance of examinations
- Severe cramps in the vaginal area during gynaecological examinations
- Sexual problems
- Self-harming behaviour
- Unwanted pregnancies / abortions
- Complications during pregnancy
Indicators for domestic violence in children
- Difficulty eating / sleeping
- Slow weight gain (in infants)
- Physical complaints
- Eating disorders (including problems of breast feeding)
- Fingertip injuries
- Aggressive behaviour and language
- Depression, anxiety and/or suicide attempts
- Appearing nervous and withdrawn
- Difficulty adjusting to change
- Regressive behaviour in toddlers
- Delays or problems with language development
- Psychosomatic illness
- Restlessness and problems with concentration
- Dependent, sad or secretive behaviours
- ‘Acting out’, for example cruelty to animals
- Noticeable decline in school performance
- Fighting with peers
- Overprotective or afraid to leave mother
- Stealing and social isolation
- Exhibiting sexually abusive behaviour
- Feelings of worthlessness
Domestic violence: Frequent radiological findings
The following description refers in particular to domestic violence against adults (e.g. partners). Special aspects in the broader context are child abuse. Radiological findings may be decisive for its detection.
Reasons to contact a physician in cases of domestic violence
- In many cases, victims do not report domestic violence as the cause of an injury or for hospitalization.
- Medical presentations that do not directly involve an injury can also provide indications of domestic violence.
- Victims of domestic violence receive radiological examinations more often, especially for physical trauma.
Common injuries detectable with medical imaging
- Injuries to the reproductive organs (also during pregnancy, e.g. chorionic hematoma)
- Acute fractures (especially in the facial region, e.g. nasal bone fracture, orbital floor fracture; but also fractures of the extremities)
- Subacute and temporally indeterminate fractures (especially face, extremities and spine)
- Soft tissue injuries (e.g. hematoma and laceration)
Evaluation of image findings and the role of radiology
- Radiological findings and imaging data contribute to the documentation of the extent of physical injuries.
- However, the injury patterns of adult victims of domestic violence are similar to those of other causes of injury.
- The positive predictive value of a radiological examination alone for the possible presence of domestic violence is limited, but can be better assessed and thus increased by considering the overall clinical context.
- This can include injury patterns that do not match the medical history, the presentation of multiple injuries of different ages and frequent radiological examinations in the past.
- The radiologist’s complementary view of the case and the often somewhat calmer situation when preparing and reporting the findings of the examinations (compared to the emergency room) can thus facilitate the detection of domestic violence.
Reference: E. George et al., Radiologic Findings in Intimate Partner Violence. Radiology 2019, 291:62-69