Data and statistics

1. International data
2. National data
3. Costs of domestic violence
4. Recommendations for improving data practices

On the following pages you may find information about victimisation surveys and police data. Those sources have produced most reliable and extensive data available. Knowing the exact prevalence of domestic violence in any country is challenging.

Additionally, we summarised recommendations on good data harmonisation and consolidation that should be regarded.

1. International data

So far, not every Member State collects data in the same way, which can make comparability between countries more difficult. Find more information here. And here is EIGE’s evidence on how this can be improved (Report 2023).

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: Global Study on Homicide 2023

The study highlights that organised crime-related killing – and all homicidal violence, in all parts of the world – is far more likely to be committed by, and against, men. Men account for 81% of the victims of intentional homicide globally, and around 90% of the suspects. Women, on the other hand, are more likely to be killed because of their gender, and more likely to lose their lives to violence at home. Women account for the victims in 54% of killings in the home, and 66% of intimate partner killings.

Violence against women: An EU-wide survey (European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2014)

This FRA survey is the first of its kind on violence against women across the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU). It is based on interviews with 42.000 women across the EU, who were asked about their experiences of physical, sexual and psychological violence, including incidents of intimate partner violence (‘domestic violence’).

FRA’s survey on violence against women reveals for the first time the extent to which women are abused at home, at work, in public and online:

The following video shows the results of the survey:

Main results report

Results at a glance

The results of the FRA survey are available, among other languages, in:

World Health Organization (WHO): Violence Against Women Prevalence Estimates, 2018

This report is based on an analysis of available prevalence data from surveys and studies conducted between 2000 and 2018, obtained through a systematic and comprehensive review of all available data on the prevalence of these two forms of violence against women.

Martinez, Schröttle, Condon et al. (2006). State of European research on the prevalence of interpersonal violence and its impact on health and human rights. CAHRV – Report 2006. Coordination Action on Human Rights Violations funded through the European Commission, 6th Framework Programme, Project No. 506348.

This report reviews studies on the prevalence of interpersonal violence and its health impact on the victims that have been conducted until 2006 in European member states.

Garcia-Moreno, Jansen, Ellsberg et al. (2005). WHO Multi-country-study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses. WHO, Geneva.

WHO’s landmark study documents violence against women by their intimate partners. This report presents the initial results based on evidence collected from over 24 000 women in 10 countries. The report culminates in 15 recommendations to strengthen national commitment and action on violence against women by promoting primary prevention, harnessing education systems, strengthening the health sector’s response, supporting women living with violence, sensitising criminal justice systems, undertaking research and enhancing collaboration.

2. National data

Data and statistics in Austria
Data and statistics in Finland
Data and statistics in France
Data and statistics in Germany
Data and statistics in Greece
Data and statistics in Hungary
Data and statistics in Italy
Data and statistics in Portugal
Data and statistics in Scotland
Data and statistics in Slovenia
Data and statistics in Spain
Data and statistics in Sweden

Click on the countries to get information about different data and statistics.

3. Costs of domestic violence

The elimination of gender-based violence and the protection of victims is a goal of the European Union and one of the most important areas of work for the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE). Identifying the economic costs of gender-based violence contributes to better informed decision-making and supports policy development.

EIGE has carried out two studies on the costs of gender-based violence in the European Union. The most recent study provides updated and enriched estimates of the costs of gender-based and intimate partner violence in the EU. The previous study from 2014 analysed the methodological options to measure gender-based violence.

2021: The costs of gender-based violence in the European Union

This study estimates the costs of gender-based violence using existing methodology from the 2014 study. The report focuses on intimate partner violence as a subset of gender-based violence and provides an updated estimate of the costs of gender-based and intimate partner violence in the EU.

The study is accompanied by the technical report, which provides details on the method and data used for the cost estimation for the UK case study, as well as the extrapolation of the results to the EU Member States.

Read the report “The costs of gender-based violence in the European Union”

Read the accompanying technical report

Main findings

  • EIGE has estimated that the cost of gender-based violence across the EU is €366 billion a year. Violence against women makes up 79% of this cost, amounting to €289 billion. Intimate partner violence makes up almost half (48%, €174 billion) of the cost of gender-based violence. Intimate partner violence against women makes up 87% of this sum (€151 billion)
  • EIGE’s case study analysed three main types of costs:
    • Lost economic output relating to a variety of costs associated with the work status and productivity of victims.
    • Costs of public services covering health services, personal costs, criminal and civil justice systems, self-funded legal costs, housing aid costs, housing aid and child protection as well as specialist services.
    • Physical and emotional impact on the victims accounting for reduction in the quality of life of a victim as a consequence of violence.
  • EIGE’s new study indicates that the biggest cost comes from physical and emotional impact (56%), followed by criminal justice services (21%) and lost economic output (14%). Other costs can include civil justice services (for divorces and child custody proceedings for example), housing aid and child protection.
  • Costing studies create a better understanding of the extent and associated costs of gender-based violence and support better resource allocation across different policy areas. However, in order to monitor the costs closely, better survey data on the prevalence of gender-based violence and administrative data on the costs and use of services are urgently needed.

2014: Estimating the costs of gender-based violence in the European Union

The purpose of the study was to identify and recommend appropriate methodologies to measure the cost of gender-based and intimate partner violence in the EU. Following an analysis of existing methodologies for costing studies of gender-based violence, the study recommends a new methodology, illustrated in a case study centred on the UK.

Read the report “Estimating the costs of gender-based violence in the European Union”

Source: European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE). 2023. Costs of gender-based violence in the European Union