Module 8: Training Materials (health sector)

Videos

Training videos

Origin of biases
If you do not see the video here, please use another browser or click here: https://youtu.be/Iaan2XSw6ho.
“Our lives, our cultures, are composed of many overlapping stories. Novelist Chimamanda Adichie tells the story of how she found her authentic cultural voice and warns that if we hear only a single story about another person or country, we risk a critical misunderstanding.”
If you do not see the video here, please use another browser or click here: https://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_ngozi_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story.
Gender norms and gender role expectations
If you do not see the video here, please use another browser or click here: https://youtu.be/8CWMCt35oFY.

Task for reflection

How are the men in the video about masculinity in Disney Films portrayed ? What negative consequences can such a representation of masculinity have for boys?

If you do not see the video here, please use another browser or click here: https://youtu.be/td1PbsV6B80.

Task for reflection

How can society’s ideas about masculinity contribute to an acceptance of violence against women?

Men as victims of domestic violence
If you do not see the video here, please use another browser or click here: https://youtu.be/WND71il-Ka8.

Tasks for reflection
(1) What are the barriers that men face when reporting the violence they are experiencing in a relationship?
(2) What are the barriers culturalised conceptions of masculinities can create for male victims of domestic violence seeking help from agencies, the legal sector, and health sector?
(3) How can culturalised conceptions of masculinities affect help seeking behaviour in male victims of domestic violence?
(4) How can men’s own gender biases contribute to their view/reflection on their own experience with domestic violence?

Objectification of women in the media
Example: Robin Thicke – Blurred Lines
If you do not see the video here, please use another browser or click here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yyDUC1LUXSU.
Lyrics

Everybody get up

Hey, hey, hey
Hey, hey, hey (Uh)
Hey, hey, hey (Ha-ha!) (Woo!)
Tune me up

If you can’t hear what I’m trying to say (Hey girl, come here!)
If you can’t read from the same page (Hey)
Maybe I’m going deaf (Hey, hey, hey)
Maybe I’m going blind (Hey, hey, hey)
Maybe I’m out of my mind, mind (Hey, hey, hey)

Okay, now he was close
Tried to domesticate you
But you’re an animal
Baby, it’s in your nature (Meow)
Just let me liberate you (Hey, hey, hey)
You don’t need no takers (Hey, hey, hey)
That man is not your maker (Hey, hey, hey)
And that’s why I’m gon’ take a good girl (Everybody get up)

I know you want it (Hey)
I know you want it
I know you want it
You’re a good girl (Hey, hey)
Can’t let it get past me (Oh yeah)
You’re far from plastic (Alright)
Talkin’ ’bout getting blasted
I hate these blurred lines
I know you want it (Hey)
I know you want it (Oh-oh-oh-oh, yeah-yeah)
I know you want it
But you’re a good girl (Ah, hey)
The way you grab me
Must wanna get nasty (Ah, hey, hey)
Go ahead, get at me (Everybody get up) (Come on!)

What do they make dreams for
When you got them jeans on? (Why?)
What do we need steam for?
You the hottest bitch in this place
I feel so lucky (Hey, hey, hey)
You wanna hug me (Hey, hey, hey)
What rhymes with hug me? (Hey, hey, hey)
Hey! (Everybody get up)

Okay, now he was close
Tried to domesticate you
But you’re an animal
Baby, it’s in your nature (Uh-huh)
Just let me liberate you (Hey, hey, hey) (Uh-huh)
You don’t need no takers (Hey, hey, hey) (Uh-huh)
That man is not your maker (Hey, hey, hey) (Uh-huh)
And that’s why I’m gon’ take a good girl (Everybody get up)

I know you want it
I know you want it (Hey)
I know you want it
You’re a good girl
Can’t let it get past me (Hey)
You’re far from plastic (Oh)
Talkin’ ’bout getting blasted (Everybody get up)
I hate these blurred lines (Hate them lines)
I know you want it (I hate them lines)
I know you want it (I hate them lines)
I know you want it
But you’re a good girl (Good girl)
The way you grab me (Hustle Gang, homie)
Must wanna get nasty (Let go) (I say Rob)
Go ahead, get at me (Let me holla at ’em real quick)

One thing I ask of you
Let me be the one you back that ass up to (Come on!)
Go from Malibu to Paris, boo (Yeah)
Had a bitch, but she ain’t bad as you (Uh-uh, ayy)
So, hit me up when you pass through (Oh)
I’ll give you something big enough to tear your ass in two
Swag on ’em even when you dress casual
I mean, it’s almost unbearable (Hey, hey, hey!) (Everybody get up)
In a hundred years not dare would I
Pull a Pharcyde, let you pass me by
Nothin’ like your last guy, he too square for you
He don’t smack that ass and pull your hair like that (You like it)
So I’m just watchin’ and waitin’
For you to salute the true big pimpin’
Not many women can refuse this pimpin’
I’m a nice guy, but don’t get it confused, get pimpin’ (Everybody get up)

Shake your rump
Get down, get up
Do it like it hurt, like it hurt
What, you don’t like work?
Hey! (Everybody get up)

Baby, can you breathe?
I got this from Jamaica
It always works for me
Dakota to Decatur (Uh-huh)
No more pretending (Hey, hey, hey) (Uh-huh)
‘Cause now you’re winning (Hey, hey, hey) (Uh-huh)
Here’s our beginning (Hey, hey, hey) (Uh-huh)
I always wanted

You’re a good girl (Everybody get up)
I know you want it (Hey)
I know you want it
I know you want it
You’re a good girl
Can’t let it get past me (Oh yeah)
You’re far from plastic (Alright)
Talkin’ ’bout getting blasted
I hate these blurred lines (Everybody get up)
I know you want it (Hey)
I know you want it (Oh-oh-oh-oh, yeah-yeah)
I know you want it
But you’re a good girl (Ah, hey)
The way you grab me
Must wanna get nasty (Ah, hey, hey)
Go ahead, get at me

Everybody get up
Everybody get up
Hey, hey, hey
Hey, hey, hey
Hey, hey, hey

Task for reflection

Robin Thicke’s Blurred Lines has been called a “rape anthem”. Why do you think this song was called that? What message does this song send?

Representation of LGBTIQ+ in the media
If you do not see the video here, please use another browser or click here: https://youtu.be/ysbX6JUlaEc.

Task for reflection

What consequences can a lack of or incorrect representativeness have on the perception of cases of domestic violence in LGBTIQ+ relationships? How can diverse media representativeness help to break down stereotypes?

Counterstereotype imaging
If you do not see the video here, please use another browser or click here: https://youtu.be/jD8tjhVO1Tc.

Task for reflection

1. What is the main message of the video?
2. How and on the basis of which characteristics do you divide people into groups? What characteristics do you ascribe to them? Which discourses determine these “classifications”, where do your prejudices come from (circle of friends, media, politics)?
3. What do these considerations mean for diversity and inclusion in our society?

Individuation

The following three videos show how the topic of diversity is successfully addressed in advertising campaigns.

In 2019, Starbucks won an award for diversity in advertising. It is showing the life of Jemma, who prefers to be called James.
If you do not see the video here, please use another browser or click here: https://youtu.be/pcSP1r9eCWw.
“We’re The Superhumans” was part of a campaign of the 2016 Paralympic Games.
If you do not see the video here, please use another browser or click here: https://youtu.be/IocLkk3aYlk.
Dove has created campaigns focused on real people – people of colour, the LGBTIQ+ community and people of all ages and body sizes. Its “Real Beauty” campaign brings the brand down to the level of consumers, not to the level of models or people of a so-called “perfect” size.
If you do not see the video here, please use another browser or click here: https://youtu.be/XpaOjMXyJGk.

Tasks for reflection

1. What are the main message of these videos? What do they have in common?
2. How do they relate to the strategy of individuation?
3. What do these considerations mean for diversity and inclusion in our society?

Further video recommendations

Case studies
Case study: Victim of domestic violence with drug addiction

Anna is a 28-year-old woman who has been in a violent relationship with her partner, Mark, for several years. Along with the physical and emotional abuse, Anna also struggles with drug addiction. She is addicted to cocaine and regularly uses it as a coping mechanism to deal with the traumatic experiences in her relationship. Anna has made several unsuccessful attempts to break free from Mark and overcome her addiction.

Tasks for reflection

1. How might stereotypes and biases influence society’s understanding of victims of domestic violence with drug addiction?
2. What additional challenges might women like Anna face due to the combination of domestic violence and drug addiction?
3. How could the concept of individuation help shift the perception and support available for victims of domestic violence with drug addiction?

Case study: Elderly victim of domestic violence

Robert is an 80-year-old man who has been living with his adult son, Michael, for the past few years. Unfortunately, their living situation has turned into one of domestic violence. Michael verbally and physically abuses Robert, often berating him and beating him. Robert, due to his old age and declining health, feels helpless and trapped in the situation. He does not know how to find help or escape from the violence due to his physical limitations and dependence on his son.

Tasks for reflection

1. How might stereotypes and biases influence society’s perception of elderly victims of domestic violence?
2. What additional challenges might victims like Robert face in terms of seeking help and escaping domestic violence due to their old age?
3. How could the concept of individuation help raise awareness and provide tailored support for elderly victims of domestic violence?

Case study: Male victim of domestic violence

John is a 35-year-old man who has been in a long-term relationship with his partner, Sarah. Over the past few months, their relationship has deteriorated significantly. Sarah has been displaying increasingly aggressive and violent behaviour towards John. She yells at him, verbally abuses him, and physically assaults him by hitting and kicking him. John feels helpless and is too ashamed to tell his friends or the police because he fears that no one will believe him and that he will not be taken seriously or may be seen as weak.

Tasks for reflection

1. What stereotypes and biases can be seen in this case study? Which own biases might influence John’s perceptions?
2. What challenges might male victims of domestic violence face in terms of stigma and societal perception?
3. How could the contact theory help change the perception of male victims of domestic violence and promote support?

Case study: Disabled victim of domestic violence

Emily is a 40-year-old woman with a physical disability who is in a long-term marriage with her husband, David. Over the past few years, their relationship has become increasingly violent. David abuses Emily both verbally and physically. He insults her because of her disability and exploits her dependency on him to exert control and manipulation. Emily feels trapped in her helplessness, as her disability poses additional barriers for seeking help and escaping the abusive relationship.

Tasks for reflection

1. How might stereotypes and biases influence the perception and support available for disabled victims of domestic violence?
2. What specific challenges might women like Emily experience in terms of domestic violence due to their disability?
3. How could the contact theory help raise awareness of the needs and support available for disabled victims of domestic violence, while acknowledging their unique experiences?

Case study: Domestic violence in a LGBTIQ+ relationship

Lisa and Emma are a same-sex couple in their late 30s who have been dating for a few months. Recently, Lisa, who identifies as a lesbian, has started displaying abusive behaviour towards Emma, who identifies as bisexual. Lisa verbally insults and belittles Emma, using derogatory language related to her bisexuality. Emma feels trapped and afraid to talk to someone about it, as she worries about potential stigma and discrimination from both the LGBTIQ+ community and the society. She does not want to leave Lisa, because she loves her.

Tasks for reflection

1. How can stereotypes and biases impact the understanding and support available for victims of domestic violence within the LGBTIQ+ community?
2. What additional challenges might victims like Emma face in terms of seeking help and breaking free from domestic violence within a same-sex relationship?
3. How could the contact theory contribute to increasing awareness, fostering inclusivity, and providing tailored support for victims from the LGBTIQ+ community experiencing domestic violence?

Case study: High-class victim of domestic violence

Isabella is a 35-year-old woman who lives in an upscale neighborhood. She has been married to her husband, Charles, for the past 10 years. Charles, a successful businessman, regularly hits her and tells her to cover the spots with her clothes. Isabella is afraid that seeking help might lead to public scrutiny and damage her reputation and social standing.

Tasks for reflection

1. How might stereotypes and biases about the socioeconomic background impact the perception of domestic violence?
2. What additional challenges might victims like Isabella face in terms of seeking help and breaking free from domestic violence due to their socioeconomic status?
3. How could an understanding of power dynamics, including economic control, contribute to improving support systems for victims like Isabella in high-class settings?

Case study: Immigrant victim of domestic violence

Amina is a 30-year-old woman who immigrated to a new country from a conservative, patriarchal society. She faces numerous challenges in adapting to her new life and culture. Amina’s husband, Farid, uses her immigrant status and limited language skills as tools for manipulation and control, exploiting her fear of deportation and isolation from her family and community, all of which make her hesitant to reach out for help.

Tasks for reflection

1. How might cultural stereotypes and biases influence the perception and support available for immigrant women like Amina who experience domestic violence?
2. What additional challenges might Amina face due to her migration background in terms of domestic violence and seeking help?
3. How could cultural sensitivity and awareness play a role in providing support to immigrant victims of domestic violence while respecting their unique cultural experiences?

Role plays
Role play: Perspective taking in domestic violence at the emergency department

For trainers:

  • Each participant should assume their assigned role: Julia (victim), David (partner), and Dr. Anderson (physician).
  • Participants should remain in character and respond based on their assigned role’s perspective.
  • The role play should progress organically, with participants engaging in conversation and interactions based on the setting and scene provided.

What students should learn in this role play:

  • Participants should understand the dynamics of domestic violence depending on the role and group they belong to.
  • Participants should practice empathy and perspective taking as physicians.

Variants: Repeat the role play again using different settings of victims and/or perpetrators. This time, the victim is David’s gay partner Alex, David’s physically impaired wife Elisabeth, or David’s old father Arthur who lives with him.

Roles:

1. Victim of domestic violence: Julia

2. Partner: David

3. Physician: Dr. Anderson

Setting:

Julia has been experiencing severe abdominal pain and visits the emergency department of a hospital. David, her partner, accompanies her. The physician is not aware that Julia has been punched in the stomach by David. Domestic violence is present for many years in this relationship.

Scene:

Julia and David enter the emergency department. Dr. Anderson, the physician, greets them and instructs Julia to take a seat.

Dr. Anderson: Good morning, how can I assist you?

Julia: Hello, I –

David (interrupts): Julia has been having severe abdominal pain for a few days. It’s getting worse, so we came here.

Dr. Anderson: I see. We will take care of it. Julia, can you please provide me with more information on when and how did it start and on how the pain feels in the moment and if you’ve noticed any other symptoms?

Julia: The pain is always there and is located in my lower abdomen. I

David (interrupts): She feels nauseous and has lost her appetite.

Dr. Anderson: Thank you for the information. Julia, have you had any recent injuries or any specific incidents that could have caused your pain?

David: (interrupts) No, she hasn’t been injured. It’s probably just an upset stomach.

How could the conversation continue at this point?

Tasks for reflection

1. How did it feel to play the role of Julia, the victim of domestic violence? What emotions did you experience?
2. As David, the partner, how did it feel to take on the perspective of the perpetrator?
3. How did it feel to play the role of Dr. Anderson, as healthcare professional trying to assess Julia’s symptoms? Did you encounter any challenges in balancing empathy and maintaining professional boundaries?
4. What did you learn from this role play about the importance of perspective taking and empathising with victims of domestic violence?

Role play: Perspective taking in domestic violence in the emergency consultation of a dental clinic

For trainers:

  • Each participant should assume their assigned role: Jenny (victim), Mark (partner), and Dr. Miller (dentist).
  • Participants should remain in character and respond based on their assigned role’s perspective.
  • The role play should progress organically, with participants engaging in conversation and interactions based on the setting and scene provided.

What participants should learn in this role play:

  • Participants should understand the dynamics of domestic violence depending on the role and group they belong to.
  • Participants should practice empathy and perspective taking as dentists.

Variations: Repeat the role play with different settings of victims and/or perpetrators. This time, the victim is Mark’s gay partner Peter, Mark’s physically impaired wife Sarah or Mark’s elderly father John who lives with him.

Roles:
1. Victim of domestic violence: Jenny
2. Partner: Mark
3. Dentist: Dr. Miller

Setting:
Jenny suffers from severe jaw pain and visits the emergency consultation of a dental practice. Mark, her partner, accompanies her. The dentist is not aware that Jenny has been punched in the face by Mark. Domestic violence is present for many years in this relationship.

Scene:
Jenny and Mark enter the consultation room. Dr. Miller, the dentist, greets them and instructs Jenny to take a seat.

Dr. Miller: Good morning, how can I assist you?

Jenny: Hello, I –

Mark (interrupts): Jenny has been having severe jaw pain. It’s getting worse, so we came here.

Dr. Miller: I see. We will take care of it. Jenny, can you please provide me with more information on when and how did it start and on how the pain feels in the moment and if you’ve noticed any other symptoms?

Jenny: The pain is always there and is located in my right facial area. I –

Mark (interrupts): She cannot open her mouth without pain and the jaw joint cracks.

Dr. Miller: Thank you for the information. Jenny, have you had any recent injuries or any specific incidents that could have caused your pain?

Mark (interrupts): No, she hasn’t been injured. I suspect Jenny is just grinding her teeth.

How could the conversation continue at this point?

Tasks for reflection

1. How did it feel to play the role of Jenny, the victim of domestic violence? What emotions did you experience?
2. As Mark, the partner, how did it feel to take on the perspective of the perpetrator?
3. How did it feel to play the role of Dr. Miller, as healthcare professional trying to assess Jenny’s symptoms? Did you encounter any challenges in balancing empathy and maintaining professional boundaries?
4. What did you learn from this role play about the importance of perspective taking and empathising with victims of domestic violence?

Knowledge assessment

If you don’t see a quiz here, please click here or use another browser.

Further training materials
Objectification of women in the media

Exercise

Are you aware of recent examples of this phenomenon in the media? If not, take 10 minutes to do some research.

Celebrity cases
Chris Brown

In 2009, Chris Brown beat Rihanna and pictures surfaced of her bloodied face. After this information became public, society did not focus on Chris Brown’s actions, but instead blamed Rihanna.

Here is an account of what really happened, taken from Chris Brown’s affidavit.

Even after the facts of the case were made public, the victim-blaming went on. People continued to victim-blame her by focusing on “why she went back” instead of asking “why did Chris Brown do this?” or “why does our society continue to accept domestic violence?”

Task for reflection

Why do you think Rihanna stayed in the relationship?

As you read the report, did you notice any factors that would suggest that Rihanna was particularly at high risk?

See Module 5 for more information on risk assessment.

Harvey Weinstein

Harvey Weinstein’s abuse and assault of women led to an increased focus on the issue of sexual violence due to his high-profile position as a Hollywood film producer and the number of victims who have spoken out against him.

In late 2017, over 100 women reported about Weinstein’s assaults on them. Weinstein raped them, appeared naked in front of them, forced them to massage him, offered them advancement in their careers in exchange for sexual favours and much more. He was removed from his company and many international film organisations, and subsequently charged with rape, criminal sex acts, sexual abuse, and sexual misconduct, leading to his arrest. Weinstein’s initial response to the allegations against him was a letter in which he claimed that being born in the 60s was the reason of his actions.

The actions of Harvey Weinstein, and the flood of reporting as a result, reignited an international social media campaign, #MeToo, started by Tarana Burke. This movement was a call of awareness against those crimes in which people shared their stories of men sexually assaulting or harassing them.

Thus far, the #MeToo movement has resulted in an unprecedented amount of media attention and political discourse, but it has also put pressure on victims and been met with backlash.

Task for reflection

Are you familiar with the #MeToo movement? Can you think of other similar movements? What consequences do you think the #MeToo movement has had on victims, both positive and negative?

Donald Trump

Donald Trump was recorded rudely objectifying women and bragging that he gets away with sexual harassment and assault due to his celebrity status.

Warning: This text box contains language that some may find offensive

In the recording he says, “I did try and f*ck her. She was married. … I moved on her like a b*tch. But I couldn’t get there. And she was married. Then all of a sudden I see her, she’s now got the big phony tits and everything. She’s totally changed her look. … Yeah, that’s her. With the gold. I better use some Tic Tacs just in case I start kissing her. You know, I’m automatically attracted to beautiful — I just start kissing them. It’s like a magnet. Just kiss. I don’t even wait. And when you’re a star, they let you do it. You can do anything. … Grab ’em by the p*ssy. You can do anything.”

Task for reflection

Trump labelled the recorded conversation as “locker room talk”. What are the dangers of such a justification?

Victim-blaming
Exercise: Victim-blaming in cases of rape

The following exercise is intended to highlight the frequent victim-blaming that occurs in cases of rape. See also the definition “Judicial Bias” under Manifestation of biases. Imagine if the types of questions that are normally asked of rape victims were asked of a robbery victim. The following text is intended to illustrate how such an interview would then proceed.

“Mr. Smith, you were held up at gunpoint on the corner of First and Main?” 
“Yes.”

“Did you struggle with the robber?” 
“No.”

“Why not?” 
“He was armed.”

“Then you made a conscious decision to comply with his demands rather than resist?” 
“Yes.”

“Did you scream? Cry out?” 
“No, I was afraid.”

“I see. Have you ever been held up before?” 
“No.”

“Have you ever GIVEN money away?” 
“Yes, of course.”

“And you did so willingly?” 
“What are you getting at?”

“Well, let’s put it like this, Mr. Smith. You’ve given money away in the past. In fact, you have quite a reputation for philanthropy. How can we be sure that you weren’t CONTRIVING to have your money taken from you by force?” 
“Listen, if I wanted –”

“Never mind. What time did this holdup take place, Mr. Smith?” 
“About 11:00 P.M.”

“You were out on the street at 11:00 P.M.? Doing what?” 
“Just walking.”

“Just walking? You know that it’s dangerous being out on the street that late at night. Weren’t you aware that you could have been held up?” 
“I hadn’t thought about it.”

“What were you wearing at the time, Mr. Smith?” 
“Let’s see…a suit. Yes, a suit.”

“An EXPENSIVE suit?” 
“Well yes. I’m a successful lawyer, you know.”

“In other words, Mr. Smith, you were walking around the streets late at night in a suit that practically advertised the fact that you might be good target for some easy money, isn’t that so? I mean, if we didn’t know better, Mr. Smith, we might even think that you were asking for this to happen, mightn’t we?”

From “The Legal Bias Against Rape Victims (The Rape of Mr. Smith).” Connie K. Borkenhagen, American Bar Association Journal. April, 1975

Biases in the context of domestic violence and their possible consequences
Counterstereotype imaging
https://end-gender-stereotypes.campaign.europa.eu/index_en

Take time to reflect on the image.

  1. What is your initial reaction to this image?
  2. Are there any traditional gender roles that come to your mind when you see this image? If so, which ones?
  3. How does this image challenge or reinforce traditional gender roles?
  4. What assumptions might arise for you when seeing a man engaging in an activity traditionally associated with women?

Example I: What comes to mind when you see a woman firefighter or a female engineer? Is this something unexpected for you?

Look beyond the figures and what is hidden behind:

  • 35% of Europeans believe that men are more ambitious than women.
  • 36% – that is how much less women overall earn on average compared with than men.
  • 20% of graduates in information and communications technology (ICT) are women.

Example II: What comes to mind when you see a working father doing or supervising caring duties of his children? Is that something unusual for you?

Look beyond the figures and what is hidden behind:

  • 44% of Europeans think that the most important role of a woman is to take care of her home and her family.
  • 82% of persons those working part-time for care reasons are women.
  • 21% of men spent more than 5 hours a day caring for their children, compared to 40% of women.
https://end-gender-stereotypes.campaign.europa.eu/index_en
Creator: Philippe BUISSIN | Copyright: © European Union 2021 – Source: EP

Example III: What comes to mind when you see a female president decorating a high-ranking military woman? What comes to mind when you see a black woman as Member of the European Parliament? Is this something surprising for you?

Look beyond the figures and what is hidden behind:

  • 69% of Europeans think women are more likely than men to make decisions based on their emotions.
  • 32% of members of national parliaments across the EU are women.
  • 5% of elected members of the European Parliament (2019-2025) belong to racial or ethnic minorities.
  • 8% of CEOs in large listed companies in the EU are women.

Task for further reflection

Could you think of your own example of counterstereotype imaging? What do you see when you look behind the figures illustrating your example?

Links